1. Undersized sponge : Over or under beating of the batter, High sugar contents,, Oven baking temperature excessive, Early removal of the cake form pan after baking, Under baking, improper greasing of the pan.
2. Crust Dark in color: Oven too hot, Over baking, Excessive sugar.
3. Crust Light in color : Under baking, Cold oven, Over beaten or over mixed batter.
4. Tough, Thick, hard Crust : Over heated oven, Excessive sugar, non homogenous mixing.
5. Heavy Cakes : Over or under beaten batter, flour content high, Excessive sugar, Overheated ovens.